Further Research

Current Research

Audio Video Webinars
Acton, Carol, and Jane Potter. Working in a World of Hurt: Trauma and Resilience in the Narratives of Medical Personnel in Warzones. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2015.

Assmann, Aleida. Shadows of Trauma: Memory and the Politics of Postwar Identity. New York, NY: Fordham University Press, 2016.

Bica, Camillo Mac. Beyond PTSD: The Moral Casualties of War. Commack, NY: Gnosis Press, 2016.

Graham, Larry. Moral Injury: Restoring Wounded Souls. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 2017.

Litz, Brett T. et al. Adaptive Disclosure: A New Treatment for Military Trauma, Loss, and Moral Injury. New York, NY: Guilford Press, 2016.

Meagher, Robert E. Killing from the Inside Out: Moral Injury and just War. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2015.

Moon, Zachary. Coming Home: Ministry That Matters with Veterans and Military Families. St. Louis: Chalice Press, 2015.

Rambo, Shelly. Resurrecting Wounds: Living in the Afterlife of Trauma. Waco, TX. Baylor University Press, 2017.

Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron, Anne L. Naclerio. Women at War. New York, Ny. Oxford University Press, 2015.

Sherman, Nancy. Afterwar: Healing the Moral Injuries of Our Soldiers. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Wood, David. What have we done?: The Moral Injury of our Longest Wars. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, and Company, 2016.

Kerr, Laura K. “Responding to Moral Injury in Veterans.” Laura K. Kerr Ph.D. (2017).

Benjamin, Claudie. “Behind the Games- Moral Injury and Veterans.” VAntage Point (2016).

Boorstein, Michelle. “What Happens when the Military Chaplain is Shaken by War.” Washington Post (2016).

Caiazzo, Greg. “The Military Chaplain.” Military Chaplain’s Association United States of America 89, no. 1, Spring 2016 (2016).2015-MCA_Spring 2016_web

DeMoss, Dustin. “The Dilemma of a Soldier’s Choices.” in Huffington Post Politics [database online]. 3/23/2016 [cited 2016].

Dripchak, Valerie L., and Jamshid A. Marvasti. “Moral Injury in War Veterans: Seeking Invisible Wounds.” Social Work Today, no. September/October (2016).

Freudberg, David. “Veterans Healing from ‘Moral Injury’.” Huffington Post (2016).

Hauff, Natalie C. “Chaplains Begin Treating Veterans for Newly Designated ‘Moral Injury’.” The Post and Courier (2016).

Maguen, Shira. “Moral Injury and the Need for Innovative Treatment.” in Center for Deployment Psychology. 2016

Marty, Martin. “Moral Injury.” in The University of Chicago Divinity School [database online]. Chicago, Il 29 August 2016

Mckinley, Lara”From Boots to Books.” in Chapman University [database online]. 3/15/2016

Morris, Joshua “How to Help Veterans Returning Home from War.” in World Religion News [database online]. 3/11/2016 [cited 2016]

Nauert, Rick. “Army Psychologist’s Death Spurs New Findings on Vet’s Suicide Risk.” Psych Central (2016).

Scranton, Roy. “Choosing War.” Dissent Magazine, Winter 2016 2016,.

Smith, Case. “Pulitzer-Winning Journalist Talks about the Human Impact of War.” Downtown Devil: The front page of downtown Pheonix (2016)

Backholm and T. Idås, “Ethical Dilemmas, Work-Related Guilt, and Posttraumatic Stress Reactions of News Journalists Covering the Terror Attack in Norway in 2011,” Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 142-148. 2015

A.O. Bryan, J.L. Theriault, C.J. Bryan, “Self-forgiveness, posttraumatic stress, and suicide attempts among military personnel and veterans,” Traumatology, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 40-46. 2015

C.J. Bryan, “Adjusting our aim: Next steps in military and veteran suicide prevention,” Spirituality in Clinical Practice, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 84-85. 2015

A.I. Cantoa, M.L. McMackinb, S.C.W. Haydenc, K.A. Jefferya and D.S. Osborna, “Military veterans: Creative counseling with student veterans,” Journal of Poetry Therapy: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Practice, Theory, Research and Education, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp.147-163. 2015

Congdon, “Wronged beyond words: On the publicity and repression of moral injury,” Philosophy and Social Criticism, first published on April 22, 2015, doi:10.1177/0191453715580158.

M.A. Cornish and N.G. Wade, “A Therapeutic Model of Self-Forgiveness With Intervention Strategies for Counselors,” Journal of Counseling & Development, Vol. 93, No. 1, pp. 96-104. 2015

C.J. Bryan, E. Graham, E. Roberge, “Living a life worth living: Spirituality and suicide risk in military personnel,” Spirituality in Clinical Practice, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 74-78. 2015

J.M. Currier, K.D. Drescher, J.M. Holland, R. Lisman & D.W. Foy, “Spirituality, Forgiveness, and Quality of Life: Testing a Mediational Model with Military Veterans with PTSD,” International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, first published on Feb 26, 2015, doi:10.1080/10508619.2015.1019793.

J.M Currier, J.M. Holland, L. Rojas-Flores, S. Herrera, D. Foy, “Morally injurious experiences and meaning in Salvadorian teachers exposed to violence,” Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 24-33. 2015

J.M. Currier, S. Kuhlman, P.N. Smith, “Empirical and ethical considerations for addressing spirituality among veterans and other military populations at risk for suicide,” Spirituality in Clinical Practice, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 68-73 2015

J.M. Currier, W. McCormick, K.D. Drescher, “How do morally injurious events occur? A qualitative analysis of perspectives of veterans with PTSD,” Traumatology, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 106-116. 2015

Davis, “Four Ways Life Extension will Change Our Relationship with Death,” Bioethics, first published on April 23,  2015.

Devenish-Meares, “Call to Compassionate Self-Care: Introducing Self-Compassion Into the Workplace Treatment Process,” Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 75-87. 2015

Doehring, “Resilience as the Relational Ability to Spiritually Integrate Moral Stress,” Pastoral Psychology, first published on April 16, 2015, doi:10.1007/s11089-015-0643-7.

Faini, “The Bodies and Spaces of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder,” Ada: A Journal of Gender, New Media, and Technology, Issue 6. 2015

P.C. Ferrajão and R.A. Oliveira, “The Effects of Combat Exposure, Abusive Violence, and Sense of Coherence on PTSD and Depression in Portuguese Colonial War Veterans,” Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy,  first published on April 13, 2015.

P.C. Ferrajão and R.A. Oliveira, “From self-integration in personal schemas of morally experiences to self-awareness of mental states: A qualitative study among a sample of Portuguese war veterans,” Traumatology, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 22-31. 2015

P.C. Ferrajão and R.A. Oliveira, “Portuguese War Veterans: Moral Injury and Factors Related to Recovery From PTSD,” Qualitative Health Research, first published on February 23, 2015.

D.W. Foy and K.D. Drescher, “Faith and honor in trauma treatment for military personnel and their families,” in Spiritually oriented psychotherapy for trauma. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 2015, pp. 233-252.

CH MAJ S. George, “Moral Injury and the Problem of Facing Religious Authority,”  Fort Leavenworth Ethics Symposium, 20-23 April 2015.

Harris, C.L. Park, J.M. Currier, and T.J. Usset, “Moral Injury and Psycho-Spiritual Development: Considering the Developmental Context,” Spirituality in Clinical Practice, first published on Jan 19, 2015

Hiraoka, E.C. Meyer, N.A. Kimbrel, B.B. DeBeer, S.B. Gulliver and S.B. Morissette, “Self-Compassion as a Prospective Predictor of PTSD Symptom Severity Among Trauma-Exposed U.S. Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans,” Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 127-133. 2015

Kinghorn, “Moral Engagement, Combat Trauma, and the Lure of Psychiatric Dualism: Why Psychiatry Is More Than a Technical Discipline,” Harvard Review of Psychiatry, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 28-37. 2015

M.S. Kopacz and A.L Connery, “The veteran spiritual struggle,” Spirituality in Clinical Practice, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 61-67. 2015

Levinson, “Moral Injury and the Ethics of Educational Injustice,” Harvard Educational Review, Vol. 85, No. 2, pp. 203-228. 2015

Minkowitz, ESQ. “Decision-Making and Moral Injury,” Mad In America, published on June 22, 2015

O’Donnell, “Help for Heroes: PTSD, Warrior Recovery, and the Liturgy,” Journal of Religion and Health, first published on March 21, 2015, doi:10.1007/s1094301500345.

Nazarov, R. Jetly, H. McNeely, M. Kiang, R. Lanius, and M. C. McKinnon, “Role of morality in the experience of guilt and shame within the armed forces,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 132, No. 1, pp. 4-19. 2015

Nickerson, U. Schnyder, R.A. Bryant, M. Schick, J. Mueller, N. Morina, “Moral Injury in Traumatized Refugees,” Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Vol. 84, No. 2, pp. 122-123. 2015

Shapiro and D. Laliotis, “EMDR Therapy for Trauma-Related Disorders,” pp. 205-228 in Evidence Based Treatments for Trauma-Related Psychological Disorders. 2015

M.D. Sherman, J.I. Harris, C. Erbes, “Clinical Approaches to Addressing Spiritual Struggle in Veterans With PTSD,” Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. 203-212. 2015

Special Issue: Military Social Work Education: Innovative Strategies and Implications for Social Work PracticeJournal of Social Work Education, Vol. 51, Supp. 12015

Pond, Allison. “How Churches can Better Help Veterans Recover from Spiritual Wounds .” Desert News National (Nov 6, 2015).

W.R. Sterner and L.R. Jackson-Cherry, “The Influence of Spirituality and Religion on Coping for Combat-Deployed Military Personnel,” Counseling and Values, Vol. 60, No. 1, pp. 48–66. 2015

Chaplain (Maj.) Sean Wead, “Ethics, Combat, and a Soldier’s Decision to Kill,” Military Review, March-April 2015, pp. 69-81.

Almost Sunrise. Directed by Michael Collins. New Day Films, 2016

Archive Research

Audio Video Webinars
Armstrong, Keith, Suzanne Best, and Paula Domenici. Courage after Fire: Coping Strategies for Troops Returning from Iraq and Afghanistan and Their Families. Berkeley: Ulysses, 2006.

Asken, Michael J., Loren W. Christensen, and Dave Grossman. Warrior Mindset: Mental Toughness Skills for a Nation’s Defenders : Performance Psychology Applied to Combat. Millstadt, Ill.: Human Factor Research Group, 2010.

Benderman, Kevin, and Monica Benderman. Letters from Fort Lewis Brig: A Matter of Conscience. Guilford, CT: Lyons Press, 2007.

Benedict, Helen. The Lonely Soldier: The Private War of Women Serving in Iraq. Boston: Beacon Press, 2009

Boudreau, Tyler E. Packing Inferno: The Unmaking of a Marine. Port Townsend, WA: Feral House, 2008.

Bouvard, Marguerite Guzman. Invisible Wounds of War: Coming Home from Iraq and Afghanistan. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2012.

Bowden, Lisa ed. Powder: Writing by Women in the Ranks, from Vietnam to Iraq. Tuscon, AZ: Kore Press, 2008.

Brock, Rita Nakashima., and Gabriella Lettini. Soul Repair: Recovering from Moral Injury after War. Boston: Beacon Press, 2012.

Buckley, Gail Lumet. American Patriots: The Story of Blacks in the Military from the Revolution to Desert Storm. New York: Random House, 2002.

Busch, Benjamin. Dust to Dust: A Memoir. New York: Ecco Press, 2012.

Calica, Lovella, ed. After Action Review. Chico, CA: Warrior Writers. 2011.

Cantrell, Bridget C., and Chuck Dean. Once a Warrior: Wired for Life. Seattle, WA: WordSmith Publishing, 2007.

Capps, Walter H. The Unfinished War: Vietnam and the American Conscience. 2nd ed. Boston: Beacon Press, 1990.

Casteel, Joshua. Letters from Abu Ghraib. [Ithaca, NY]: Essay Press, 2008.

Driscoll, Patricia P., and Celia Straus. Hidden Battles on Unseen Fronts: Stories of American Soldiers with Traumatic Brain Injury and PTSD. Drexel Hill, PA: Casemate, 2009.

Ellis, Deborah. Off to War: Voices of the Soldiers Children. Toronto: Groundwood Books, 2010.

Fortune, Marie M. Sexual Violence: The Sin Revisited. Cleveland: Pilgrim Press, 2005.

Glasser, Ronald J. Broken Bodies, Shattered Minds: A Medical Odyssey from Vietnam to Afghanistan. Palisades, NY: History Pub., 2011.

Goodell, Jess, and John E. Hearn. Shade It Black: Death and after in Iraq. Philadelphia: Casemate Publishers, 2011.

Grossman, Dave. On Killing. Boston: Little, Brown, 2009.

Holmstedt, Kirsten A. Band of Sisters: American Women at War in Iraq. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2007.

Marlantes, Karl. What It Is like to Go to War. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2011.

Mehl-Laituri, Logan. Reborn on the Fourth of July: The Challenge of Faith, Patriotism & Conscience. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Books, 2012.

Mejía, Camilo. Road from Ar Ramadi: The Private Rebellion of Staff Sergeant Camilo Mejía. New York: New Press, 2007.

Peters, David W. Death Letter: God, Sex, and War. Colorado Springs: Tactical 16, LLC, 2014.

Rambo, Shelly. Spirit and Trauma: A Theology of Remaining. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2010.

Shay, Jonathan. Achilles in Vietnam: Combat Trauma and the Undoing of Character. New York: Atheneum, 1994.

Sherman, Nancy. The Untold War: Inside the Hearts, Minds, and Souls of Our Soldiers. New York: W. W. Norton, 2010.

Slone, Laurie B., and Matthew J. Friedman. After the War Zone: A Practical Guide for Returning Troops and Their Families. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Lifelong, 2008.

Tyger, George. War Zone Faith: An Army Chaplain’s Reflections from Afghanistan. Boston, Ma. Skinner House Books, 2013.

Van Der Kolk, Bessel. The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind, and Body in the Healing of Trauma. New York, NY: Penguin Group LLC, 2014.

Verkamp, Bernard J. The Moral Treatment of Returning Warriors in Early Medieval and Modern times. Scranton: University of Scranton Press, 2006.

Watkins, Mary, and Helene Shulman. Toward Psychologies of Liberation: Critical Theory and Practice in Psychology and the Human Sciences. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

Phil Klay, Redeployment, Penguin Press, 2014.

Karl Marlantes, Matterhorn: A Novel of the Vietnam War, Grover Press, 2010.

Kevin Powers, Yellow Birds: A Novel, Back Bay Books, 2013.

J.M. Currier, J. Holland, and J. Malott, “Moral Injury, Meaning Making, and Mental Health in Returning Veterans,” Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 71, No. 3, pp. 229-2402014

J.M. Currier, J.M. Holland, K. Drescher, “Initial Psychometric Evaluation of the Moral Injury Questionnaire—Military Version,” Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 54-63. 2013

M.S. Kopacz, “Spirituality and suicide prevention: Charting a course for research and clinical practice,” Spirituality in Clinical Practice, Vol. 2, No 1, pp. 79-81.

M.S. Kopacz, J.M. McCarten, C.G. Vance, A.L. Connery, “A preliminary study for exploring different sources of guilt in a sample of veterans who sought chaplaincy services,” Military Psychology, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 1-8.

Manda, “Re-authoring Life Narratives of Trauma Survivors: Spiritual Perspective,” HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies, Vol. 71, No. 2, pp. 1-8. 2014

L.C Musto, P.A. Rodney, and R. Vanderheide, “Toward Interventions to Address  Moral Distress: Navigating Structure and Agency,” Nursing Ethics, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 91-102. 2014

Moral Injury in the Context of War.” Shira Maguen and Brett Litz

R.J. Westphal and S.P. Convoy, “Military Culture Implications for Mental Health and Nursing Care,” Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, Vol. 20 Issue 1, p. 1.

M. Alvarado, “The Beginning of the End of War,” Sojourners, January 2014

Brock and G. Lettini, “Coming Home is Hell: Moral Injury After War,” The Bloomsbury Guide to Pastoral Care, Bernadette Flanagan and Sharon Thornton, eds. New York: Bloomsbury, 2014, pp. 139-149.

Grohowski, Mariana. “Moving Words, Words That Move: Language Practices Plaguing U.S. Servicewomen.” Women and Language, 37(1):121-130. 2014.  https://www.scribd.com/doc/299357727/Moving-Words-Words-that-Move-Language-Practices-Plaguing-U-S-Servicewomen

Bryan, C. Bryan, C. Morrow, N. Etienne, B Ray-Sannerud, “Moral injury, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts in a military sample,” Traumatology, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 154-160. 2014

Currier, K. Drescher, J.I. Harris, “Spiritual functioning among veterans seeking residential treatment for PTSD: A matched control group study,” Spirituality in Clinical Practice, Vol.  1, No. 1, pp. 3-15. 2014

Farnsworth, K. Drescher, J. Nieuwsma, R. Walser, J. M. Currier, “The role of moral emotions in military trauma: Implications for the study and treatment of moral injury,” Review of General Psychology, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 249-262. 2014

Fiester, “When It Hurts to Ask: Avoiding Moral Injury in Requests to Forgo Treatment,” American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation,Vol. 93, Issue 3, pp. 260–262. 2014

Gilligan, “Moral Injury and the Ethic of Care: Reframing the Conversation about Differences,” The Journal of Social Philosophy, Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 89-106. 2014

S. Kopacz, E. Silver, andR. M. Bossarte, “A Position Article for Applying Spirituality to Suicide Prevention,” Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 133-146. 2014

Litz, “Clinical heuristics and strategies for service members and veterans with war-related PTSD,” Psychoanalytic Psychology, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 192-205. 2014

Litz, “Resilience in the aftermath of war trauma: a critical review and commentary,” Interface Focus, first published on August 22, 2014, doi:10.1098/rsfs.2014.0008.

Shay, “Moral injury,” Psychoanalytic Psychology, Vol 31, No. 2, pp. 182-191. 2014

Dombo, C. Gray, and B. Early, “The Trauma of Moral Injury: Beyond the Battlefield,” Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 197-210. 2013

K.D. Drescher, et al, “Moral Injury Themes in Combat Veterans’ Narrative Responses From the National Vietnam Veterans’ Readjustment Study,” Traumatology, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 243-250. 2011

S.W. Gibbons, M, Shafer, E.J. Hickling, and G. Ramsey, et. al. “How Do Deployed Health Care Providers Experience Moral Injury?” Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics, Vol. 3, No.3, pp. 247-259. 2013

Maguenand K, Burkman, “Combat-Related Killing: Expanding Evidence-Based Treatments for PTSD,” Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, Vol. 20, Issue 4, pp. 476–479. 2013

Michael Matthews, “The Untold Story of Military Sexual Assault,” New York Times, November 24, 2013.

Jessica Montoya Coggins, The agonizing face of war: Soldiers with PTSD make disturbing masks to express their feelings of horror and frustrationDaily Mail, May 26, 2013.

Nash and B. Litz, “Moral Injury: A Mechanism for War-Related Psychological Trauma in Military Family Members,” Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, Vol. 16, Issue 4, pp. 365-375. 2013

Nash,  T. Marino Carper, M. A. Mills , T. Au, A. Goldsmith, B. Litz, “Psychometric Evaluation of the Moral Injury Events Scale,” Military Medicine, Vol. 178, Issue 6,pp. 646–652.

A. Howsepian, “Moral Damage and Spiritual Repair in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder,” Christian Research Journal, Vol. 36, No. 2. 2013

Aristotle Popanikolaou, “Learning How to Love: Saint Maximus on Virtue,” from Knowing the Purpose of Creation Through Resurrection” Proceedings from the Symposium on St Maximus the Confessor. 

Reflective Practice, 2013, Volume 33, “Spirituality in Formation and Supervision.”

F. Vargas, T. Hanson, D. Kraus, K. Drescher, D. Foy, “Moral Injury Themes in Combat Veterans’ Narrative Responses From the National Vietnam Veterans’ Readjustment Study,” first published on February 21, 2013, doi:10.1177/1534765613476099.

Dokoupil, “A New Theory of PTSD and Veterans: Moral Injury,” Time, December 3, 2012.

Kinghorn, “Combat Trauma and Moral Fragmentation: A Theological Account of Moral Injury,” Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 57-74. 2012

Maguen, T. Metzler, J. Bosch, C. Marmar, S. Knight, and T. Neylan, “Killing in Combat May Be Independently Associated with Suicidal Ideation,” Depression and Anxiety, Vol. 29, No. 11, pp. 918-923. 2012

Shay, “Moral Injury,” Intertexts, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 57-66. 2012

Worthington and D. Langberg, “Religious Considerations and Self-Forgiveness in Treating Complex Trauma and Moral Injury in Present and Former Soldiers,” Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 40, No. 4. 2012

Boudreau, “The Morally Injured,” Massachusetts Review, Vol. 52, No. 3/4, pp. 746-754.

K.D. Drescher, et al, “An Exploration of the Viability and Usefulness of the Construct of Moral Injury in War Veterans,” Traumatology, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 8-13. 2011

Eidelson, M. Pilisuk, S. Soldz, “The dark side of comprehensive soldier fitness,” American Psychologist, Vol. 66, No. 7, pp. 643-644. 2011 Komarovskaya, et al, “The impact of killing and injuring others on mental health symptoms among police officers,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, Vol. 45, Issue 10, pp. 1332–1336. 2011

Maguen, et. al, “Killing in combat, mental health symptoms, and suicidal ideation in Iraq war veterans,” Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Vol. 25, Issue 4, pp. 563–567. 2011

Maguen, et. al, “The impact of killing on mental health symptoms in Gulf War veterans,” Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 21-26. 2011

Mejia, “Healing Moral Injury,” Fellowship of Reconciliation, Winter. 2011

Steenkamp, et al, “A Brief Exposure-Based Intervention for Service Members With PTSD,” Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, Vol. 18, Issue 1, pp. 98–107. 2011

Wainryb, “‘And So They Ordered Me to Kill a Person’: Conceptualizing the Impacts of Child Soldiering on the Development of Moral Agency,” Human Development, Vol. 54, No. 5, pp. 273–300. 2011

Brett T. Litz, et al. “Moral Injury and Moral Repair in War Veterans: A Preliminary Model and Intervention Strategy.” Clinical Psychology Review, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 243-250.

Mulhall, Erin. Women Warriors: Supporting She Who has Bourne the Battle. Issue Report. Washington, DC: Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans of America. 2009. http://media.iava.org/IAVA_WomenWarriors_2009.pdf

Ground Truth. Directed by Patricia Foulkrod. United States: Focus Features, 2006.

In the Valley of Elah. Directed by Paul Haggis. Performed by Tommy Lee Jones, Charlize Theron, and Jason Patric. United States: Warner Independent Pictures, 2007.

The Invisible War. Directed by Kerby Dick. Cinedigm Docurama Films, 2012. DVD.

Lioness. Directed by Meg McLagan and Daria Sommers. Performed by Specialist Shannon Morgan, Specialist Rebecca Nava, Major Kate Guttorsmen, Captain Anastasia Breslow, Staff Sergeant Ranie Ruthig. Room 11 Productions, 2008.

Restrepo. Directed by Tim Hetherington and Sebastian Junger. National Geographic Entertainment, 2010. DVD.

Soldiers of Conscience. Directed by Catherine Ryan and Gary Weimberg. Performed by Joshua Casteel, Aidan Delgado, Camilo Mejia, Kevin Benderman,Thomas Washington, Todd Savage and Jaime Isom. Docurama, 2007.

Stop-loss. Directed by Kimberly Peirce. Performed by Ryan Phillippe, Abbie Cornish, and Channing Tatum. United States: Paramount Pictures, 2008.

Taxi to the Dark Side. Directed by Alex Gibney. United States: Think Film, 2007.